Medical Ultrasonography
Sonography is effective medical imaging of soft tissues of the whole body...
What is UltraSonography?

UltraSonography is an ultrasound based diagnostic imaging technique used to evaluate many parts of the body including the abdomen, blood vessels, fetus of pregnant women, joints, thyroid gland, superficial body structures including subcutaneous area (area below skin), tendons & muscles.

It utilizes high frequency sound waves (Ultrasound) to obtain diagnostic images. Diagnostic ultrasound, also called sonography or diagnostic medical sonography. The images produced during an ultrasound examination often provide valuable information for diagnosing and treating a variety of diseases and conditions.

Pre preparations

How you prepare for an ultrasound depends on which area of your body needs evaluation:

Most ultrasound exams require no preparation.
Examination such as a pelvic ultrasound — require that you should not urinate before the exam to ensure that your urinary bladder will be full, allowing better visualization of the uterus, ovaries or prostate.
How the test is performed?

During an ultrasound exam, you usually lie on an examination table. A small amount of gel is applied to your skin. The gel helps eliminate the formation of air pockets between the ultrasound and your body. During the exam, a technician trained in ultrasound imaging (sonographer) presses a small hand-held device (transducer), against your skin over the area of your body being examined, moving from one area to another as necessary. Images are created on the monitor by the sound waves.


Ultrasonography doesn’t have any risk. Ultrasound is usually a painless procedure. However, you may experience some mild discomfort as the sonographer guides the transducer over your body, especially if you're required to have a full bladder. A typical ultrasound exam takes from 15 minutes to 30 minutes.


Although ultrasound is a valuable tool, it does have its limitations. Sound doesn't travel well through air or bone, so ultrasound isn't effective at imaging parts of your body that have gas in them or that are obscured by bone. Rather than using ultrasound to view these areas, your doctor may instead order other imaging tests, such as CT or MRI scans, or X-rays.


Though the majority of ultrasound exams are performed with a transducer on your skin, some ultrasounds are done inside your body (invasive ultrasounds). For these exams, a specialized transducer is attached to a probe that's inserted into a natural opening in your body. Examples of these exams include:

Transesophageal echocardiogram A small, specialized transducer is inserted into your esophagus to obtain images of the nearby heart. Such exams are typically performed with sedation.
Transrectal ultrasound A small, specialized transducer is inserted into a man's rectum to view his prostate.
Transvaginal ultrasound A small, specialized transducer is inserted into a woman's vagina to view her uterus and ovaries.
Why the test is done?

You may need to undergo an ultrasound for a variety of reasons :

To diagnose early pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy and to assess a fetus and to assess treatment of infertility
To Diagnose pathology of Abdomen and abdominal cavity like hernias, diseases of liver, gallbladder, urogenital disease etc.
To Diagnose Peripheral vascular disease / to evaluate flow in blood vessels anywhere in the body
To evaluate a breast lump in addition to Mammography
To check thyroid gland
To evaluate function of the heart & valve (Called Echocardiography)
To reveal abnormalities in the genitalia and prostate
To evaluate abnormalities of subcutaneous plane, the muscles and tendons
To evaluate joints
To guide for needle biopsy or for tumor treatment

When your exam is complete, the sonographer and a radiologist generally view the ultrasound images on film or on a computer monitor. The radiologist analyzes the images and sends a report of the findings to your doctor.